PL/SQL – Introduction

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PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle’s proprietary server-based proceduralextension to the SQL database language.The PL/SQL and SQL languages are tightly integrated.PL/SQL supports all the SQL datatypes and the non-value NULL.PL/SQL is a block-structured
language.

Main Features of PL/SQL

  • Variables and constants.
    • PL/SQL allows you to declare and use variables and constants in sql
      as well as the procedural statements.
  • Cursors
    • A PL/SQL construct called a cursor that
      runs through the tuples of some relation.. There are two kinds of cursors: implicit
      and explicit. PL/SQL implicitly declares a cursor
      for all SQL data manipulation statements, including queries that return only
      one row. For queries that return more than one row, you can explicitly
      declare a cursor to process the rows individually.
  • Control Structures
    • Control structures allows to to control conditional, iterative, and
      sequential flow of statements.
    • Conditional Control –IF-THEN-ELSE
    • Iterative
      Control – LOOP-END
      LOOP
      ,FOR -LOOP ,WHILE-LOOP
    • Sequential control
  • Modularity
    • Successive refinement will reduce a complex problem to a set of simple problems. PL/SQL meets this need with program units. PL/SQL provides the package, procedures and functions, those allows you to group related program items into larger units.
  • Data abstraction
    • Data abstraction is achieved in PL/SQL through proper data structure implementations.There are different approaches to achieve this,
    • Collections
    • Records
    • Object Types
  • Information hiding
    • Achieved through Packages,procedures,functions etc.
  • Error Handling.
    • PL/SQL makes it easy to detect and process predefined and user-defined
      error conditions called exceptions. When an
      error occurs, an exception is raised.
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